常用关健字注释

在linux下会有很多是单词的缩写,那这个单词的原有是什么单词呢, 记住这些单词对理解命令参数的意义帮助很大.

  1. bin = BINaries
  2. /dev = DEVices
  3. /etc = ETCetera
  4. /lib = LIBrary
  5. /proc = PROCesses
  6. /sbin = Superuser BINaries
  7. /tmp = TeMPorary
  8. /usr = Unix Shared Resources
  9. /var = VARiable ?
  10. FIFO = First In, First Out
  11. GRUB = GRand Unified Bootloader
  12. IFS = Internal Field Seperators
  13. LILO = LInux LOader
  14. MySQL = My是最初作者女儿的名字,SQL = Structured Query Language
  15. PHP = Personal Home Page Tools = PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
  16. PS = Prompt String
  17. Perl = "Pratical Extraction and Report Language" = "Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister"
  18. Python 得名于电视剧Monty Python's Flying Circus
  19. Tcl = Tool Command Language
  20. Tk = ToolKit
  21. VT = Video Terminal
  22. YaST = Yet Another Setup Tool
  23. apache = "a patchy" server
  24. apt = Advanced Packaging Tool
  25. ar = archiver
  26. as = assembler
  27. awk = "Aho Weiberger and Kernighan" 三个作者的姓的第一个字母
  28. bash = Bourne Again SHell
  29. bc = Basic (Better) Calculator
  30. bg = BackGround
  31. biff = 作者Heidi Stettner在U.C.Berkely养的一条狗,喜欢对邮递员汪汪叫。
  32. cal = CALendar
  33. cat = CATenate
  34. cd = Change Directory
  35. chgrp = CHange GRouP
  36. chmod = CHange MODe
  37. chown = CHange OWNer
  38. chsh = CHange SHell
  39. cmp = compare
  40. cobra = Common Object Request Broker Architecture
  41. comm = common
  42. cp = CoPy
  43. cpio = CoPy In and Out
  44. cpp = C Pre Processor
  45. cron = Chronos 希腊文时间
  46. cups = Common Unix Printing System
  47. cvs = Current Version System
  48. daemon = Disk And Execution MONitor
  49. dc = Desk Calculator
  50. dd = Disk Dump
  51. df = Disk Free
  52. diff = DIFFerence
  53. dmesg = diagnostic message
  54. du = Disk Usage
  55. ed = editor
  56. egrep = Extended GREP
  57. elf = Extensible Linking Format
  58. elm = ELectronic Mail
  59. emacs = Editor MACroS
  60. eval = EVALuate
  61. ex = EXtended
  62. exec = EXECute
  63. fd = file descriptors
  64. fg = ForeGround
  65. fgrep = Fixed GREP
  66. fmt = format
  67. fsck = File System ChecK
  68. fstab = FileSystem TABle
  69. fvwm = F*** Virtual Window Manager
  70. gawk = GNU AWK
  71. gpg = GNU Privacy Guard
  72. groff = GNU troff
  73. hal = Hardware Abstraction Layer
  74. joe = Joe's Own Editor
  75. ksh = Korn SHell
  76. lame = Lame Ain't an MP3 Encoder
  77. lex = LEXical analyser
  78. lisp = LISt Processing = Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses
  79. ln = LiNk
  80. lpr = Line PRint
  81. ls = list
  82. lsof = LiSt Open Files
  83. m4 = Macro processor Version 4
  84. man = MANual pages
  85. mawk = Mike Brennan's AWK
  86. mc = Midnight Commander
  87. mkfs = MaKe FileSystem
  88. mknod = MaKe NODe
  89. motd = Message of The Day
  90. mozilla = MOsaic GodZILLa
  91. mtab = Mount TABle
  92. mv = MoVe
  93. nano = Nano's ANOther editor
  94. nawk = New AWK
  95. nl = Number of Lines
  96. nm = names
  97. nohup = No HangUP
  98. nroff = New ROFF
  99. od = Octal Dump
  100. passwd = PASSWorD
  101. pg = pager
  102. pico = PIne's message COmposition editor
  103. pine = "Program for Internet News & Email" = "Pine is not Elm"
  104. ping = 拟声 = Packet InterNet Grouper
  105. pirntcap = PRINTer CAPability
  106. popd = POP Directory
  107. pr = pre
  108. printf = PRINT Formatted
  109. ps = Processes Status
  110. pty = pseudo tty
  111. pushd = PUSH Directory
  112. pwd = Print Working Directory
  113. rc = runcom = run command, rc还是plan9shell
  114. rev = REVerse
  115. rm = ReMove
  116. rn = Read News
  117. roff = RunOFF
  118. rpm = RPM Package Manager = RedHat Package Manager
  119. rsh, rlogin, rvim中的r = Remote
  120. rxvt = ouR XVT
  121. seamoneky =
  122. sed = Stream EDitor
  123. seq = SEQuence
  124. shar = SHell ARchive
  125. slrn = S-Lang rn
  126. ssh = Secure SHell
  127. ssl = Secure Sockets Layer
  128. stty = Set TTY
  129. su = Substitute User
  130. svn = SubVersioN
  131. tar = Tape ARchive
  132. tcsh = TENEX C shell
  133. tee = T (T形水管接口)
  134. telnet = TEminaL over Network
  135. termcap = terminal capability
  136. terminfo = terminal information
  137. tex = τ?χνη的缩写,希腊文art
  138. tr = traslate
  139. troff = Typesetter new ROFF
  140. tsort = Topological SORT
  141. tty = TeleTypewriter
  142. twm = Tom's Window Manager
  143. tz = TimeZone
  144. udev = Userspace DEV
  145. ulimit = User's LIMIT
  146. umask = User's MASK
  147. uniq = UNIQue
  148. vi = VIsual = Very Inconvenient
  149. vim = Vi IMproved
  150. wall = write all
  151. wc = Word Count
  152. wine = WINE Is Not an Emulator
  153. xargs = eXtended ARGuments
  154. xdm = X Display Manager
  155. xlfd = X Logical Font Description
  156. xmms = X Multimedia System
  157. xrdb = X Resources DataBase
  158. xwd = X Window Dump
  159. yacc = yet another compiler compiler
  160. 转自《frankdavejiwei的博客》
  161. 这些是补充的:
  162. Fish = the Friendly Interactive SHell
  163. su = Switch User
  164. MIME = Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
  165. ECMA = European Computer Manufacturers Association
  166. 缩写习惯
  167. 无聊和乏味的工作是罪恶
  168. -- Eric S. Raymond
  169. 构建于图形界面之上的操作系统,使用鼠标作为主输入设备,是否使用缩写并不重要。比如 Windows 系统中的目录,几乎都是全称…… 点击
  170. 两次鼠标进入文件夹 pf,并不意味着点击13次才能进入文件夹 Program Files
  171. 而构建于命令行之上的操作系统,如 Linux,只要3个字母以上的单词,几乎都要缩写。例如: cd 命令是 Change Directory 的缩写。作为常
  172. 用命令,如果使用它的全称 Change Directory,绝对是无聊和乏味的工作。
  173. 最常见的缩写,取每个单词的首字母,如
  174. cd Change Directory
  175. dd Disk Dump
  176. df Disk Free
  177. du Disk Usage
  178. pwd Print Working Directory
  179. ps Processes Status
  180. PS Prompt Stringps
  181. su Substitute User
  182. rc Run Command
  183. Tcl Tool Command Language
  184. cups Common Unix Printing System
  185. apt Advanced Packaging Tool
  186. bg BackGround
  187. ping Packet InterNet Grouper
  188. 如果首字母后为“h”,通常保留
  189. chsh CHange SHell
  190. chmod CHange MODe
  191. chown CHange OWNer
  192. chgrp CHange GRouP
  193. bash Bourne Again SHell
  194. zsh Z SHell
  195. ksh Korn SHell
  196. ssh Secure SHell
  197. 递归缩写[3]也属于这一类,如:
  198. GNU GNU's Not Unix
  199. PHP PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
  200. RPM RPM Package Manager
  201. WINE WINE Is Not an Emulator
  202. PNG PNG's Not GIF
  203. nano Nano's ANOther editor
  204. 有些缩写可能有多种定义,如:
  205. rpm
  206. RPM Package Manager
  207. RedHat Package Manager
  208. bc
  209. Basic Calculator
  210. Better Calculator
  211. 这方面 Emacs 可谓独领风骚:
  212. Emacs
  213. Editor MACroS
  214. Emacs Makes A Computer Slow
  215. Escape Meta Alt Control Shift
  216. Emacs Makers Are Crazy Sickos
  217. Emacs Makes All Computing Simple
  218. Emacs Makefiles Annihilate C-Shells
  219. Emacs Manuals Always Cause Senility
  220. Emacs May Allow Customized Screwups
  221. Emacs Manuals Are Cryptic and Surreal
  222. Eventually Munches All Computer Storage
  223. Eight Megabytes And Constantly Swapping
  224. Elsewhere Maybe All Commands are Simple
  225. Excellent Manuals Are Clearly Suppressed
  226. Emacs May Alienate Clients and Supporters
  227. Except by Middle Aged Computer Scientists
  228. Extended Macros Are Considered Superfluous
  229. Every Mode Accelerates Creation of Software
  230. Each Manual's Audience is Completely Stupefied
  231. Exceptionally Mediocre Algorithm for Computer Scientists
  232. Easily Maintained with the Assistance of Chemical Solutions
  233. Eradication of Memory Accomplished with Complete Simplicity
  234. 如果只有一个单词,通常取每个音节的首字母:
  235. cp CoPy
  236. ln LiNk
  237. ls LiSt
  238. mv MoVe
  239. rm ReMove
  240. 对于目录,通常使用前几个字母作为缩写:
  241. bin BINaries
  242. dev DEVices
  243. etc ETCetera
  244. lib LIBrary
  245. var VARiable
  246. proc PROCesses
  247. sbin Superuser BINaries
  248. tmp TeMPorary
  249. usr Unix Shared Resources
  250. 这种缩写的其它情况
  251. diff DIFFerences
  252. cal CALendar
  253. cat CATenate
  254. ed EDitor
  255. exec EXECute
  256. tab TABle
  257. regexp REGular EXPression
  258. 如果某种缩写比较深入人心,例如“mesg”代表“message”,在新的复合缩写中,将沿用这种缩写方式
  259. dmesg Diagnostic MESsaGe
  260. sed Stream EDitor
  261. stty Set TTY
  262. fstab FileSystem TABle
  263. passwd PASSWorD
  264. 有些缩写中,第一个字母“g”,代表“GNU”
  265. awk Aho Weiberger and Kernighan
  266. gawk GNU AWK
  267. gpg GNU Privacy Guard
  268. grep GNU Regular Expression Print
  269. egrep Extended GREP
  270. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  271. [3] 定义中包含自身缩写,如 GNU:
  272. GNU's Not Unix
  273. 使用这个定义来解释定义中的缩写:
  274. (GNU's Not Unix)'s Not Unix
  275. 这意味着它是可以无限递归的:
  276. (((((GNU's Not Unix)'s Not Unix)'s Not Unix)'s Not Unix)'s Not Unix)'s Not Unix ……
  277. 命令选项,从az
  278. Linux 命令的选项繁复庞杂,让人眼花缭乱。不过这些选项往往具有相对固定的涵义,熟悉了它们,记忆便不再困难
  279. -a
  280. all : 全部,所有 (ls , lsattr , uname)
  281. archive : 存档 (cp , rsync)
  282. append : 附加 (tar -A , 7z)
  283. -b
  284. blocksize : 块大小,带参数 (du , df)
  285. batch : 批处理模式 (交互模式的程序通常拥有此选项,如 top -b)
  286. -c
  287. commands : 执行命令,带参数 (bash , ksh , python)
  288. create : 创建 (tar)
  289. -d
  290. debug : 调试
  291. delete : 删除
  292. directory : 目录 (ls)
  293. -e
  294. execute : 执行,带参数 (xterm , perl)
  295. edit : 编辑
  296. exclude : 排除
  297. -f
  298. force : 强制,不经确认(cp , rm ,mv)
  299. file : 文件,带参数 (tar)
  300. configuration file : 指定配置文件(有些守护进程拥有此选项,如 ssh , lighttpd)
  301. -g
  302. -h
  303. --help : 帮助
  304. human readable : 人性化显示(ls , du , df)
  305. headers : 头部
  306. -i
  307. interactive : 交互模式,提示(rm , mv)
  308. include : 包含
  309. -k
  310. keep : 保留
  311. kill
  312. -l
  313. long listing format : 长格式(ls)
  314. list : 列表
  315. load : 读取 (gcc , emacs)
  316. -m
  317. message : 消息 (cvs)
  318. manual : 手册 (whereis)
  319. create home : 创建 home 目录 (usermod , useradd)
  320. -n
  321. number : 行号、编号 (cat , head , tail , pstree , lspci)
  322. no : (useradd , make)
  323. -o
  324. output : 输出 (cc , sort)
  325. options : 选项 (mount)
  326. -p
  327. port : 端口,带参数 (很多网络工具拥有此选项,如 ssh , lftp )
  328. protocol : 协议,带参数
  329. passwd : 密码,带参数
  330. -q
  331. quiet : 静默
  332. -r
  333. reverse : 反转
  334. recursive : 递归 (cp , rm , chmod -R)
  335. -s
  336. silent : 安静
  337. size : 大小,带参数
  338. subject
  339. -t
  340. tag
  341. type : 类型 (mount)
  342. -u
  343. user : 用户名、UID,带参数
  344. -v
  345. verbose : 冗长
  346. version : 版本
  347. -w
  348. width : 宽度
  349. warning : 警告
  350. -x
  351. exclude : 排除 (tar , zip)
  352. -y
  353. yes
  354. -z
  355. zip : 启用压缩 (bzip , tar , zcat , zip , cvs)